Research

 

Mathias Oulé, Ph.D
Mathias Oulé, Ph.D

AKWATON is an antimicrobial biocide of the guanidine Family. It is recognized and approved in European Union. For 8 years my team is working on AKWATON for FOSFATON-AKWATON INTERNATIONAL LTD. We tested its efficiency against quality controlled strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella choleraesuis, Escherichia coli and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The bactericidal activity of AKWATON diluted in hard water was determined using the Association of Official Analytical Chemist (AOAC) Official Method of Analysis with modifications as recommended by Canadian General Standard Board (CGSB). The phenol coefficient numbers obtained for S. aureus, S. choleraesuis and P. aeruginosa were 7.1, 6.1 and 4.4 respectively. For Escherichia coli and MRSA, the results were expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC). The results showed that no matter the type of water (distilled, tap and hard water) used to make dilutions, AKWATON killed MRSA and E. coli respectively at a concentration ≥ 0.04% and ≥ 0.005% within 1.5 min. The mode of action of PHMGH was elucidated by transmission electron microscopy: the cell envelope was broken, resulting in cell content leakage into the medium.

I also compared AKWATON to hydrogen peroxide solution (H2O2) and 70% alcohol on several types of bacteria (Vibrio fishcheri belongs to the same genus that Vibrio choloreae which is responsible for cholera. S. aureus is responsible of food poisoning. S. aureus is also often found in hospitals and it is used to determine the phenol coefficient of disinfectants. B. stearothermophils is a Gram+ capsulated and sporeforming bacterium. S. typhi is also used to determine the phenol coefficient of disinfectants), moulds and yeasts. A Solution of 0.05% AKWATON was 3 times effective than 3% H2O2 and 6 times, than 70%alcohol.

I personally also tested the wipes containing 0.05% AKAWTON, comparing them to common wipes. AKWATON Wipes are more efficient and remain active about 6 hours on hands, and more than 10 hours on hard surfaces since AKWATON is not volatile like alcohol. In my opinion as researcher, using AKWATON wipes is the very good way to prevent contamination.

AKWATON is odorless, colorless and noncorrosive, and is significantly less toxic and harmless than currently used disinfectants to humans and animals at a concentration ≤ 1%.

Ivory Coast has become the world's first producer of cocoa and the world's third producer of coffee. With a yearly production of nearly 1.2 to 1.3 millions tons, Ivorian cocoa production represents 42% of world market, corresponding to 40% worldwide chocolate.

However, the loss in global production is estimated to 41% in cocoa production. Before harvesting, during transformation and storage, cocoa and coffee are exposed to potential damaging microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and viruses.

For example:

- Phytophtora palmivora is a fungus that rottens the cocoa fruits before harvest.

- Trachysphaera fructigena, a fungus that also provoques another disease in cocoa fruits.

- Colletotrichum coffeanum is a virulent strain that causes Coffee berry disease leading to their rottenness.

- Glomerella cingulata and Glomerella cingulata are fungi causing a coffee disease called Anthracnose.

- swollen-shoot and Blister spot are viral diseases respectively in Cocoa and coffee

- Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a toxin produced by fungi (Aspergillus and Penicillium) in cocoa and coffee. This toxin is dangerous to human. For that matter, the European Union laid down some regulations on acceptable level of OTA in cocoa and coffee.


We can find solutions to the microorganism’s issues in cocoa and coffee production by applying Akwaton, since It is recognized and approved European Union. We have developed some methods to treat cocoa and coffee with AKWATON at deferent stages of production: before harvest on trees, during transformation and storage.

Our previous studies have shown that 0.05% solution of Akwaton is effective against fungi, mould and bacteria. Our others studies have shown that cocoa beans treated with Akwaton were well preserved for over a year. AKWATON technology can be used to preserve others fruits and vegetables. This technology can provide big profit in agricultural products trade. For example:If we can preserve 500,000 tonnes of cocoa annually (which is 40% of total production) with AKWATON, and one kg of cocoa cost $1.5.we can save $750, 000 000 annually.




"Jurnal Medical Microbiology", African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 5(24), pp. 4162-4169, 30 October, 2011 ISSN 1996-0808 @2011 Academic Journals http://www.ustboniface.mb.ca

Fosfaton-Akwaton International Ltd.

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